The study of marketing’s history as a discipline is significant because it helps in determining the baselines against which change can be defined and comprehending how the discipline evolves in reaction to those changes. Although marketing has been used for millennia, the term “marketing” was first coined in the late 1800s to characterise business activities that aid in the purchase and sale of goods and services. The study of marketing history as an academic discipline began in the early twentieth century.
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Era of marketing
Product, manufacturing, selling, marketing, and holistic marketing are the five periods of marketing as a discipline, according to Philip Kotler, a well-known marketing “guru” and author of multiple textbooks on the subject. These periods don’t have clear beginnings or endings, and the methods of each are still in use today; nonetheless, their order depicts the growth of marketing as a discipline.
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The Production Era
The first era of marketing was mainly dependent on the production. Kotler says that at that moment production was the best of marketing. He mentioned that the production need must be widely accessible and affordable so that everyone can buy it.
The Era of the Product
In the product era, marketing was mainly based on the features of the product. The marketing used to market the features of the product or service. This was the main way to target the audience.
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The Era of Selling
The selling demand and process starts in this phase. In the selling era, vigorous promotion was the biggest factor to increase the selling rate. Kotler says that the companies try to sell what they make rather than of producing what the customer wants.
The Era of Marketing
From the mid of 1950s the marketing era starts. In this era, major changes have taken place. In this era, the marketers gives emphasis on the demand of the customers or we can say more customer centric products and services.
The Era of the Holistic
Kotler says that in the holistic era of marketing every aspect is essential. Marketing covers all important parts of business operations such as advertising, manufacturing and distributing. In this technological era, we can skip a single part of it.
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Some study references for marketing students
- Kotler, Philip, Suzan Burton, Kenneth Deans, Linen Brown, and Gary Armstrong. Marketing. Pearson Higher Education AU, 2015.
- Lamb, Charles W., Joe F. Hair, and Carl McDaniel. Marketing. Cengage Learning, 2012.
- Baines, Paul, Chris Fill, and Sara Rosengren. Marketing. Oxford University Press, 2017.
- Strauss, Judy, Raymond Frost, and Nilanjana Sinha. E-marketing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2014.
- Kotler, Philip, Gary Armstrong, Michael Harker, and Ross Brennan. Marketing: an introduction. Vol. 1. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990.
- Kotler, Philip, Gary Armstrong, John Saunders, Veronica Wong, Salvador Miquel, Enrique Bigné, and Dionisio Cámara. Introducción al marketing. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2000.
- McCarthy, Edmund Jerome, Stanley J. Shapiro, and William D. Perreault. Basic marketing. Ontario, CA, USA: Irwin-Dorsey, 1979.
Best Universities For Marketing Course In Australia
- Macquarie University
- Edith Cowan University (ECU)
- Macleay College
- Torrens University
- The public University of the Sunshine Coast (USC)
- University of New South Wales (UNSW)
- Monash University
- University of Technology Sydney (UTS)
- Queensland University of Technology (QUT)
- University of Wollongong (UOW)
- University of South Australia (UniSA)
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